Selected Computer Circuitry Cooling Techniques

under construction

For an overview, see R.E. Chu, R.E. Simons, M.J. Ellsworth, R.R. Schmidt, and V. Cozzolino, "Review of cooling technologies for computer products," IEEE Transactions on Device and Materials Reliability, vol. 4, no. 4, December 2004, pp. 568-585.

S/360 Model 91 - water cooled


IBM ACS - immersion in fluorocarbon

see ACS chips and cooling description

Amdahl 470 - air cooled

Amdahl 470 FACOM M-190 board
470 with panels removed Fujitsu FACOM M-190 board (equivalent to 470 board)

Amdahl 580 - air cooled

see photos at

Trilogy - water cooled

three parts of the chip module: signal connector, pressure contacter, and chip in water-cooled carrier

Cray-2 - immersion in fluorocarbon

R. Danielson, N. Krajewski, and J. Brost, "Cooling a Superfast Computer," Electronic Packaging and Producton,, vol. 26, no. 7, 1986, pp. 44-45

ETA-10 - immersion in liquid nitrogen

A. Vacca, D. Resnick, D. Frankel, R. Back, J. Kreilich, and D. Carlson, "A Cryogenically Cooled CMOS VLSI Supercomputer," VLSI Systems Design,, vol. 8, no. 7, 1987, pp. 80-88

SS-1 - fluorocarbon jet impingement

P. Ing, et al., "SS-1 supercomputer cooling system," Proc. Electronic Components and Technology Conference, June 1993, pp. 218-237