Selected Computer Circuitry Cooling Techniques

under construction


Overview

For an overview, see R.E. Chu, R.E. Simons, M.J. Ellsworth, R.R. Schmidt, and V. Cozzolino, "Review of cooling technologies for computer products," IEEE Transactions on Device and Materials Reliability, vol. 4, no. 4, December 2004, pp. 568-585.

For an overview of Cray cooling techniques, see slides 20-27 of Buddy Bland, "Jaguar: Powering and Cooling the Beast," Conference on High-Speed Computing, Gleneden Beach, Oregon, April 2009.


IBM S/360 Model 91 - water cooled - 1960s

See photos and diagrams on slides 13-17 in R.C. Chu, "Exploring Innovative Cooling Solutions for IBM's Super Computing Systems: A Collaborative Trail Blazing Experience", July 2010


IBM ACS - immersion in fluorocarbon - 1960s

See the photos and diagrams of various proposed ACS packaging and cooling modules.


Amdahl 470 - air cooled - 1970s

Amdahl 470 FACOM M-190 board
470 with panels removed equivalent Fujitsu FACOM M-190 board


Amdahl 580 - air cooled - 1980s

See the photos at www.staff.ncl.ac.uk/roger.broughton/museum/circuitry/AMDAHL.htm. The equivalent Fujitsu system is the M-300 series.


IBM 308x - water cooled TCM - 1980s

See photos and diagrams of the 308x TCM and subsequent generations of TCMs on slides 18-22 in R.C. Chu, "Exploring Innovative Cooling Solutions for IBM's Super Computing Systems: A Collaborative Trail Blazing Experience", July 2010


Amdahl 599x - water cooled - late 1980s / early 1990s

The 5990 had double-sided subsystem carrier (SSC) boards that were encased in subsystem modules (SSM) that provided water cooling. See the photos in the 5990 brochure. The equivalent Fujitsu computer is the M-700.

The 5995 used multi-layer glass-ceramic (MLG) assemblies that were similar to IBM TCMs. See a photo of the equivalent Fujitsu M-1800 MLG.


Trilogy - water cooled - 1980s

Trilogy
The photo shows the three parts of a chip module: signal connector, pressure contacter, and chip in water-cooled carrier.


Cray-2 - immersion in fluorocarbon - 1980s

See the diagrams given in Figures 13 and 23 of the "Review of cooling technologies for computer products," Chu, et al, review paper.


ETA-10 - immersion in liquid nitrogen - 1980s

See the diagram of the system given in Figure 25 of the "Review of cooling technologies for computer products," Chu, et al, review paper. Also see the photo of the CPU cabinet without its skins at Computer History Museum, from Wikimedia Commons.


SS-1 - fluorocarbon jet impingement - 1990s

See diagrams on slide 53 in R.C. Chu, "Exploring Innovative Cooling Solutions for IBM's Super Computing Systems: A Collaborative Trail Blazing Experience", July 2010


Cray-3 - gas-assisted evaporative cooling - 1990s

See the photos in the brochure.